OSHA Periodic Inspections Policy and Procedure
The frequency of inspections defined by OSHA depends on factors such as crane activity, severity of service, and environment. The inspections should cover various aspects. of the crane, including structural integrity, fastenings, sheaves and drums, mechanical parts, brake system, load indicators, power-plants, chain drive components, and electrical apparatus. Cranes that are not regularly used, including those that have been idle for different periods of time, require specific inspections before being placed back into service. Standby cranes also need to be inspected at least twice a year. The passage emphasizes the importance of carefully examining any identified deficiencies to determine if they pose safety hazards.
OSHA 1910.179 Overhead & Gantry Cranes Regulations
The following excerpt is taken directly from OSHA 1910.179.*
- Initial inspection. Prior to initial use all new and altered cranes shall be inspected to insure compliance with the provisions of this section.
- Inspection procedure for cranes in regular service is divided into two general classifications based upon the intervals at which inspection should be performed. The intervals in turn are dependent upon the nature of the critical components of the crane and the degree of their exposure to wear, deterioration, or malfunction. The two general classifications are herein designated as “frequent” and “periodic” with respective intervals between inspections as defined below:
- Periodic inspection – 1 to 12-month intervals.
- Frequent inspection – Daily to monthly intervals.
Complete inspections of the crane shall be performed at intervals as generally defined in paragraph (j)(1)(ii)(b) of this section, depending upon its activity, severity of service, and environment, or as specifically indicated below. These inspections shall include the requirements of paragraph (j)(2) of this section and in addition, the following items. Any deficiencies such as listed shall be carefully examined and determination made as to whether they constitute a safety hazard:
- Deformed, cracked, or corroded members.
- Loose bolts or rivets.
- Cracked or worn sheaves and drums.
- Worn, cracked or distorted parts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollers, locking and clamping devices.
- Excessive wear on brake system parts, linings, pawls, and ratchets.
- Load, wind, and other indicators over their full range, for any significant inaccuracies.
- Gasoline, diesel, electric, or other power-plants for improper performance or noncompliance with applicable safety requirements.
- Excessive wear of chain drive sprockets and excessive chain stretch.
- Electrical apparatus, for signs of pitting or any deterioration of controller contactors, limit switches and push-button stations.
Cranes not in regular use:
- A crane which has been idle for a period of 1 month or more, but less than 6 months, shall be given an inspection conforming with requirements of paragraph (j)(2) of this section and paragraph (m)(2) of this section before placing in service.
- A crane which has been idle for a period of over 6 months shall be given a complete inspection conforming with requirements of paragraphs (j)(2) and (3) of this section and paragraph (m)(2) of this section before placing in service.
- Standby cranes shall be inspected at least semi-annually in accordance with requirements of paragraph (j)(2) of this section and paragraph (m)(2) of this section.
The following items shall be inspected for defects at intervals as defined in paragraph (J)(1)(ii) of this section or as specifically indicated, including observation during operation for any defects which might appear between regular inspections. All deficiencies such as listed shall be carefully examined and determination made as to whether they constitute a safety hazard:
- All functional operating mechanisms for maladjustment interfering with proper operation. Daily.
- Deterioration or leakage in lines, tanks, valves, drain pumps, and other parts of air or hydraulic systems. Daily.
- Hooks with deformation or cracks. Visual inspection daily; monthly inspection with a certification record which includes the date of inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection and the serial number, or other identifier, of the hook inspected. For hooks with cracks or having more than 15 percent in excess of normal throat opening or more than 10 twist from the plane of the unbent hook refer to paragraph (L)(3)(iii)(a) of this section.
- Hoist chains, including end connections, for excessive wear, twist, distorted links interfering with proper function, or stretch beyond manufacturer’s recommendations. Visual inspection daily; monthly inspection with a certification record which includes the date of inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection and an identifier of the chain which was inspected.
- All functional operating mechanisms for excessive wear of components.
- Rope reeving for noncompliance with manufacturer’s recommendations.
*The foregoing OSHA regulations are not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all applicable regulations pertaining to the designated topic. State laws may mandate different safety and maintenance standards. Accordingly, please consult applicable state laws as well as original equipment manufacturer specifications for further guidance. The statements and descriptions contained herein constitute the opinion/recommendation of the seller. These statements are not intended to create any express warranties.